After five years of war between Kushite Kandake, Amanirenas and Augustus of Rome, a peace treaty was concluded in 21/20 BC. [15] [16] [17] The mediators were sent to Augustus by Kush, who was in Samos at the time. [18] An agreement between the two parties has been beneficial for both parties. The Kushites were a regional power in their own right and were enthroa in recognition. The Romans also sought a quiet southern border for their supply of Egyptian grains absolutely indispensable, without permanent war obligations, and saluting a friendly buffer state in a border region harassed by raids by nomads. The Kushites also seem to have felt nomads like the Blemmye as a problem. [19] The conditions were ripe for an agreement. During the negotiations, Augustus granted the Kushite envoys everything they asked for and also cancelled the tribute previously requested by Rome. [20] The premmis (Qasr Ibrim) and the areas north of Qasr Ibrim, in the southern part of the Thirty-Mile Strip, were ceded to the Kushites. The Dodecaschoinos were set up as a buffer zone and Roman troops were pulled back to the ancient Greek Ptolemaic border near Maharraqa. [21] The Roman emperor Augustus signed the contract with the Kozhites on Samos. The colony bought peace and calm in Rome on its Egyptian border, as well as the image of the Roman emperor Augustus, showed its abilities and ability to transmit peace without permanent war, and business with the distant Kouzhites, who shortly before had fought against his troops. The respect that the emperor granted by the kushit messengers, as the treaty also gave a positive impression to other foreign ambassadors to Samos, including envoys from India, and to the hand of Augustus in the upcoming negotiations with the mighty Parthers.

[22] The colony sounded a period of peace between the two rich for about three centuries. The inscriptions erected by Queen Amanirenas on an ancient temple in Hamadab, south of Meroe, record the war and the favourable result from a Cushian point of view. [23] With his signing in the official contract, the Roman emperor Augustus marked the agreement by adorning his administrators to collaborate with regional priests for the construction of a temple in Dendur, and inscriptions show the emperor himself who celebrates the local pittes. [24] The U.S. Department of State`s Office of the Assistant Legal Advisor for Treaty Affairs serves as a clearing house for all activities of the U.S. Treaty. An accessible database provides access to all past and current contracts as well as all contractual measures. Transitional Justice Institute, sponsored by the University of Ulster in the United Kingdom, the organisation lists hundreds of peace agreements, particularly those resulting from civil wars.

There are also publications on the trends of the peace agreement. United Nations Treaty Collection Each Treaty involving Members of the United Nations is listed here. There are also free publications, as well as links to educational events.

About the author